Study results

Until: November 2023

Ludwig et al. (2013)

In 2013, it was possible to demonstrate that proprio insoles have a significant influence on the activity of certain muscles.

Measurements were taken on the superficially well-draining peroneus longus muscle, which shows a significant increase in its amplitude in the mid-stance phase. The values are statistically significant, and the study is of high quality: double-blinded and randomized.

A statement by the study leader Oliver Ludwig: "It is interesting to note that the special ground shape of the sensorimotor element, as realized in the proprio insole used, was decisive for the muscular activation of the peroneal muscle. First, the plantar concave shape prevented pressure on the plantar musculature (e.g., abductor digiti minimi muscle) while avoiding a mechanical lifting effect on the outer edge of the foot. Many "sensorimotor" insoles manufactured in a conventional form have a wedge that clearly acts from plantar, where we were unable to electromyographically measure any effect on the peroneus musculature in preliminary tests. [...]

In this respect, the precise manufacturing form based on suitable blanks and the positioning adapted to the individual anatomy are of decisive importance for the effect of the insole. This underscores the special craftsmanship required to manufacture sensorimotor insoles, which cannot be achieved with insoles "off the shelf". However, not every insole that is labeled as "sensorimotor", "afference-stimulating" or "proprioceptive" will be able to have a measurable effect on muscle activity, since the blanks used for this purpose usually do not allow a corresponding grinding shape. "

Schmitt et al. (2022)

The randomized, controlled study by Schmitt et al. (2022) compared the benefits of supportive and sensorimotor insoles in terms of muscular activity changes in 73 soldiers with a drop-knee foot and combat boots. During gait analysis in combat boots, the activity of the tibialis anterior muscle and the peroneus longus muscle were recorded both with and without insoles using surface EMG measurements. Here, the soldiers wore either insoles with longitudinal arch support or sensorimotor insoles or a placebo insole. The results showed a significant difference between the effects of the different types of insoles on the muscles. The peroneus longus muscle experienced an activity-enhancing effect with sensorimotor insoles and an activity-decreasing effect with supportive insoles.

Becker et al. (2023)

An internationally published study by scientists from the University of Kaiserslautern and the University of Cologne deals with the use of sensorimotor insoles in patients with pain in the area of the foot, Achilles tendon, knee joint and back.

During the study phase of several months, in which more than 340 patients were registered by 18 German medical supply stores nationwide and provided with sensorimotor foot orthoses, a statistically measurable pain reduction of the test persons could be achieved.

The results indicate a reduction in pain (on a 11-point visual pain scale of 0-10). The subjects had an average pain score of 6.57 at the start of the study. This reduced to an average of 1.54 points over the time the insoles were worn.
The overall results of the pilot study support the assumption that sensorimotor insoles according to the Woltring/Springer concept can be used effectively, especially in patients with a pain pattern. Further therapy measures need to be considered.


The study situation on sensorimotor foot orthoses, which have practically shown enormous success in the therapy of patients for 30 years, must be further improved in the future. However, there are a significant number of studies that highlight the positive effects.

What we know & experience every day:

Muscle activating effect
Reduces subjective pain
Has impact on rotational gait deficits, espially internal rotation
Improves posture and postural control

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